Watch this video to learn more about oncogenic RAS or RAF alterations
The MAP Kinase Pathway
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is essential for cell function. The intracellular signaling mediators of the MAPK pathway are RAS (KRAS, NRAS, and HRAS), RAF (ARAF, BRAF, and CRAF), MEK (MEK1 and MEK2), and ERK (ERK1 and ERK2). In normal cells, RAF is activated by RAS and signals via MEK and ERK to regulate cell proliferation and survival.
Alterations in RAS or RAF have been described in many cancers affecting children and adults.
RAF and RAS alterations
RAF mutations and fusions have been reported in gliomas, melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), papillary thyroid cancer, colorectal cancer, and sarcoma. BRAF is the most frequently mutated RAF in solid tumors.
RAS mutations are frequently observed in advanced solid tumors like pancreatic, colorectal, small intestine, lung, thyroid and melanoma.
Alterations in RAF or RAS may lead to constitutive activation of downstream signaling molecules, resulting in continuous cellular proliferation, tumor growth and survival.